The bell is one of the oldest musical instrument in the world. Unconditionally bells have their own peculiarities in different countries. In Russian the word bell is spoken like kolokol. The etymology of this word dates back to the Old Indian word kalakalas, that means noise, shouts. In Greek the word kaleo means call. The Roman Catholics said kalare, that meant to assemble.

Ringing of bells makes always the feeling of magic strength, wizardry and mystery. This impression is made not so much by clam as by clash of the bell. Bells, which played a certain role in Russian history have given occasion to many beautiful legends.

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Coronas lucis

Light in an orthodox temple has special value. It always bears in itself an image of heavenly light, light of belief in the Christ, light winning gloom of disbelief and a sin. The architecture of orthodox temples doesn't assume much light from outside. Light in a church can be only godlike -it is light of future life in the Kingdom of Heaven. On the basis of this statement internal lighting is arranged in every temple. As well as light, church lamps have deep spiritual and symbolical value. They come on during services at night and by day, though in some cases there is rightly a little lighting, for example, while reading of a hexapsalm during a vespers vigil all lamps and candles are extinguished, except of one in the middle of the church, where the prayer stays in front of icons of Christ and the Mother of God. It becomes almost dark in the church, but "Light shines in darkness". That means, that there is no full gloom in the temple ever. On feast day and during Sunday services all lamps come up, including the upper lamps the biggest, bright and solemn. They symbolize full celebration of celestial light, which will shine for holy souls in the Kingdom of Heaven! One of types of big church lamps is a corona lucis. A corona lucis is the main lamp in an orthodox temple. Its history is deep roted in the remote past.

The oldest coronas lucis looked like a wooden wheel, which was horizontally suspended on chains to a church ceiling. Rather seldom coronas lucis were also made of metal. Candles or icon lamps were fixed around the whole wheel. In the center of an ancient corona lucis there we sometimes a round bowl with an oil lamp in it. Eventually the form of coronas lucis became more complicated. A circle of the lamp were decorated with various ornaments made of molding. Many multilayer coronas lucis appeared, that conduced preservation of a treelike form of this church lamp: a vertical core, to which rings are fastened, they contract on diameter from bottom to the top, with candles and oil lamps. Such a structure reminds us that the corona lucis symbolizes a life tree.

In course of time adornments of corona lucis became more skillful. Freakish interlacings of flowers and stalks made of molding. Circles of coronas lucis are decorated wiht figures of angels, sacred apostles and bible characters. Historically art molding shapened and improved thanks to the orthodox church. Namely for church needs first art metal wares were cast, and they were church lamps. They were naturally at first elementary, gradually becoming more complicated at form and art execution. From a simple icon to a difficult, multilayer and perfectly decorated corona lucis.

Masters of the foundry "Pacification" continue the best traditions of church lampss molding today. Coronas lucis, made by our founders, represent fine examples of art taste and perfection of execution. Modern technological processes in a combination with traditions of Russian art molding and experience of masters give an opporunity to create coronas lucis of various design complexity (with different quantity of circles), magnificent from the esthetic point of view! Filigree execution of details of ornaments/adornments of our coronas lucis can be compared due to complexity and work fineness subtlety with jewels. Corona lucis of the foundry "Pacification" become the main adornment of any orthodox temple!